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    Gavekal Research

    The Difference A Couple Of Years Makes

    In August 2015 the offshore renminbi fell -4.5% against the US dollar, unleashing a global panic as investors fretted that another big deflationary downdraft beckoned. Fast forward to August 2017 and the renminbi rose a little over 2.07%, making it the world’s best performing major currency—it even outstripped rises in the euro and Scandinavian currencies.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The Spat In The Spratlys

    It is typhoon season once again in the South China Sea. Last May, China ignited a storm of violent protest across Vietnam when it started drilling for oil off the Vietnamese coast. This year the squall is further south in the disputed waters of the Spratly Islands, where the US has demanded that China halt its land reclamation efforts. Ordered to leave the area by the Chinese military last week, a US Navy surveillance aircraft ignored the...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Good Kind Of Capital Outflow

    China’s government has been gradually restricting the ability of households and companies to move money out of the country, with one big exception: outbound portfolio investment is actually getting more support not less. As the Connect schemes with Hong Kong ease worries about capital flight, they have become the preferred channel for outflows.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    False Dawn For The Dollar — And Oil

    Last week the US dollar broke out of its summer trading range and hit its strongest level against the euro and the yen since July. The Brent oil price broke through US$60/bbl to a two-year high. And even sterling seemed to be on the verge of strengthening beyond its post-French election trading range against the euro. How should investors respond to all these breakouts?

    1
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Dealing The Right Kind Of Opium

    Xi Jinping’s embrace of traditional Chinese religions is a highly political move to build up popular support. But his hostility to Christianity, Islam and Tibetan Buddhism could cost him dearly in terms of social stability.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The End Of The Dollar Standard

    Charles is encouraged by the broad thrust of Donald Trump’s economic program, but deeply worried that the US’s emerging protectionist agenda could wreck the dollar-based credit system that underpins global financial markets. The dollar-standard was always more vulnerable to a US action than foreigners losing confidence in it as a store of value.

    6
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The View Into 2018

    The Chinese economy has experienced a nice cyclical recovery since 2016, but now most forecasters are expecting a loss of momentum in 2018. So how is this slowdown likely to play out? In this piece Chen Long lays out his case for a gradual cooling in both real and nominal growth that will not spook global markets.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Mapping China’s Asian Dream

    China’s effort to build a regional sphere of influence is upending Asian geopolitics and through huge infrastructure building, quite literally changing the geography. As such, China’s pursuit of empire is an epochal undertaken which investors need to properly factor into their macro understanding of the region. This is why Gavekal’s Tom Miller wrote a book on the topic and as Louis explains in this piece, it is a tome he really wanted to write...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Strategy Monthly: A Two-Legged Equity Bull Market

    For the past several years, the brightest spot in global equity markets has been the US, and in particular tech and consumer stocks. This is changing, and we now have a "two-legged" equity bull market led both by US tech stocks and by a resurgent Asia. In our review of global investment conditions Louis explains why this is so, and argues none of the obvious land mines is likely to go off at any time soon.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    China Economic Quarterly March 2010 - Taiwan

    The inauguration of the ASEAN-plus-China Free Trade Area makes 2010 a big year for relations between Taiwan and mainland China. Taipei hopes that trade agreements will boost business with China, which already absorbs 40% of Taiwan’s exports and 65% of its outward investment. The chances of deeper economic integration look promising.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Short History Of Financial Deregulation

    Financial deregulation has seen a cartel of national state-owned banks give way to a bewildering array of local banks, non-bank lenders, wealth management products and loans disguised as investments. Regulators are tightening their grip, yet so long as Beijing demands high-speed growth, it will have to tolerate some financial misbehavior.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    No Bridgehead Too Far In China’s Expanding Empire

    For centuries, China’s borders expanded and contracted as dynasties rose and fell. With its star in the ascendant, the Chinese empire is expanding once more. This expansion is based on economic power—trade and investment—not military conquest. But it will nevertheless reshape the geopolitics of Asia.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    No Bridgehead Too Far In China’s Expanding Empire

    For centuries, China’s borders expanded and contracted as dynasties rose and fell. With its star in the ascendant, the Chinese empire is expanding once more. This expansion is based on economic power—trade and investment—not military conquest. But it will nevertheless reshape the geopolitics of Asia.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    A Post-Reform China

    The 19th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party will decide whether Xi Jinping emerges as the head of a more “presidential” system of government, or whether the current collective system holds sway. Either way, Arthur argues that hopes for a new burst of reform in the Congress’s aftermath are probably mistaken.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The World Monetary Base And The Dollar

    If the supply of US dollars is declining then, all else being equal, the value of the dollar should rise, and vice versa. This truism can be checked by comparing the annual growth rate of the “world monetary base” with changes in the JP Morgan trade weighted dollar. Regular readers will recall that the WMB is simply the sum of the US monetary base and foreign exchange reserves deposited at the Federal Reserve for the account of foreign central...

    12
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    Gavekal Research

    Any US Profits Rebound Lacks Legs

    US equities have rallied to new highs on a favorable liquidity tide, buoyed by hopes for coordinated global growth. But they have also been given a leg-up by an apparently improved US profits outlook, as shown in the second quarter national accounts data. There are, however, compelling reasons to think that an uptick in profit margins cannot last. As 59% of value added by US non-financial corporates went to their workers in 2Q17, these center on...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    EM Can Handle Fed Fallout

    Yesterday, the “world’s central bank” confirmed that it will reverse its quantitative easing policy and likely raise interest rates in December and then three times in 2018. On the same day, the benchmark emerging market index nudged higher and is only a whisker off a six year high. Ordinarily, Federal Reserve tightening is terrible news for EMs, especially for those economies with the temerity to simultaneously try policy easing. Yet this is...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research November Call

    In our monthly research conference call yesterday, Will Denyer outlined his case that demographic factors explain much of the decline in interest rates over the last 30 or so years. His point is that we are nearing a turning point in the global demand-supply relationship for loanable funds and the overall direction of interest rates should be higher.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research September Call

    In yesterday’s monthly call Louis Gave presented his view on the global investment outlook for the rest of the year. He argued that the key story so far in 2017 has been the strong performance of Asian equities, which has added a second leg to a bull market led by US technology and consumer stocks. The question is whether this can last.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Regulatory Stress Is Still Bearable

    The main source of uncertainty in the Chinese economy right now is the financial crackdown launched in March. In this piece, Andrew looks at the April data and finds that the regulatory campaign’s impact has so far been contained. This supports our call that the regulatory stress is a bigger problem for asset markets than for the real economy.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The US Dollar Breaks Out

    Is there a more consensus trade then being bullish on the US dollar? With a) the US economy outperforming those of Europe and Japan, with b) the Federal Reserve looking to withdraw some of the extra-ordinary stimulus that it has deployed in the past five years, just as the need for the European Central Bank, and possibly the Bank of Japan, to become a lot more aggressive becomes ever starker, with c) the Pentagon limiting its defense spending...

    5
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    Gavekal Research

    The Wile E. Coyote Moment

    Sometimes financial markets can look a lot like Wile E. Coyote. So intent was the old Looney Tunes character on chasing the Road Runner, that he somehow never realized when he had shot over the cliff’s edge. For a few moments he would continue in thin air, legs a blur, supported by momentum and incomprehension. Only when he looked down... In much the same way, financial markets often continue their trend after the underlying conditions change,...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Your Guide To The Maze

    China’s financial system has grown almost five-fold and seen a proliferation of players and products over the past decade. We try to impose order on chaos and explain how the system works.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    South China Sea Risks

    In the next few weeks the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague will likely rule in favor of the Philippines in its dispute with China over territorial claims in the South China Sea. Beijing’s reaction will show to what extent China is prepared to defy international law to defend what it claims are “core interests”.

    5
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    Gavekal Research

    The Sum Of All Fears

    As “China implosion” and renminbi devaluation fears have faded, risk assets around the world have enjoyed a sustained a rally led by “China sensitive” assets such as commodities, Asian equities and emerging market high-yield debt. In short, all the assets that were priced for a scenario just short of Armageddon. But following this rebound, what next? The most obvious point is that, with the pick-up in fiscal stimulus, the rebound in construction...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Belt And Road To Leadership

    China’s Belt and Road Initiative elicits widespread skepticism and concern, while the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership is often seen as a poor cousin of the aborted Trans-Pacific Partnership. But they are currently the only credible plans for greater Asian integration.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    China’s Banks Are Better Than You Think

    China’s banks get a bad rap. But actually they are pretty well run, especially if one understands their twin roles as commercial actors and tools of state development policy.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ Q4 2014

    China’s growth decelerates again. After a short mid-year recovery, China’s GDP growth slowed again to 7.3% in the third quarter. Senior leaders’ comments about the “new normal” for economic growth show a further slowdown is expected. The trade balance is solid, thanks to decent demand from the US and Europe and falling commodity prices. But consumption and income growth are starting to weaken.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Trying To Measure The US Dollar Short Position

    It seems to be conventional wisdom that the long-dollar trade has become worryingly “crowded”. That was certainly the message after last week’s none too startling language tweak by the Federal Reserve produced a frantic dash out of the unit. But as ever, there is what you see, and what you don’t. In this case, what is obscured may be of far greater significance than what is visible in plain sight. Here is why:

    7
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    Gavekal Research

    US Bear Flattening Ahead

    The miniscule change of wording in yesterday’s Federal Reserve statement appears to confirm that the Fed will go ahead and begin to shrink its balance sheet from September. June’s statement said balance sheet normalization would begin “this year”, implying the process would start by December at the latest. Yesterday’s statement altered that to “relatively soon”—and relatively sooner than December suggests September, as the only other meeting...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Why Lower Forever Is Good News For Investors In Big Oil

    Suppose you are convinced, as I am, that oil prices will fall to near-zero by the middle of this century, for the reasons I outlined last week. If so, then among the best investments of the coming decades will be the equity of giant international oil companies such as BP, Shell, Exxon, Chevron, ENI and Total.

    7
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    Gavekal Research

    Policy & Productivity: How To Make America Great Again

    A critical and much-debated question about the US economy is whether it is permanently stuck in a “new normal” of 2-2.5% annual growth—about a point below the 3.2% average growth rate in 1970-2000—or if it can regain its previous luster. Will assesses arguments from both the upbeat techno-optimists and the grizzled growth skeptics and updates his own view based on US policymaking in the age of Trump.

    5
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    Gavekal Research

    What Is The Signal In The Renminbi’s Surprising Strength?

    Over the past week and a half, the renminbi has appreciated 1.1% against the US dollar in the onshore market, and 1.5% offshore, where the PBOC has also engineered a spike in short-term interest rates. It seems China wants to send a signal about the renminbi, but markets are having trouble decoding what it is. Andrew outlines three possible strategies the central bank may be following.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Debate: A Trump Win And The Dollar

    As the world seriously tunes into the US presidential election, four Gavekal partners debate the outlook for the US dollar should Donald Trump emerge victorious and set about his promised remaking of the international security order and global trading system.

    25
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Beijing’s Bid To Make US Rail Great Again

    CRRC is winning contract after contract in the US light rail market, slowly squeezing out traditional competitors. Its secret? The promise of direct investment and job creation.

    0
  • Gavekal Research

    Things Fall Apart

    Over the past century periods of social breakdown have swung the pendulum of power from markets to governments and back. Each crisis ended with a transformation in economic and political thinking. Today, voter anger is a response to the 2008 breakdown of deregulated capitalism. This time, argues Anatole, politicians must reconsider the market fundamentalism that has prevailed in recent decades and design a new system of checks and balances to...

    12
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    US-China Power Shift: Not So Fast

    Do Donald Trump’s miscues ensure the eclipse of Pax Americana by a rising China? Not yet.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Is The Whale Breaking Surface?

    Charles has often said that the impact of a market shock shows up with the same sort of delay as the effects of dynamite fishing. First the small fry float to the top, then the mid-size fish. Only later does the dead whale break surface. With that analogy in mind, Louis has long maintained that investors will not be able to call the end of the oil price slump with any confidence until they have seen major bankruptcies and/or consolidation among...

    4
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Five Macro Questions For 2017

    For our first China research piece of the new year, we offer a guide to the economic outlook in the form of short answers to some big questions: Will China be as boring as consensus forecast imply? Will the central bank hike interest rates? Will the housing market correct sharply? Will it be a good year for Chinese equities? Will the labor market hold up?

    7
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Export Upgrade Challenge

    Shifting China’s industrial production from low-margin assembly to high-value, technology-intensive goods has long been the Holy Grail for planners. Export data show a lot of progress, but also an enduringly high reliance on foreign components, technology and management.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    More Dollar Weakness Is Good News For The Renminbi

    The renminbi has had a surprisingly good year, thanks in large part to the weakness of the US dollar. In this piece, Chen Long argues that dollar weakness will likely continue—and with it a benign environment for capital flows and China’s currency policy. Even a rise in the renminbi is a prospect that can no longer be dismissed out of hand.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Time To Choose, PBOC

    Some calm has returned to China’s exchange-rate market—but for how long? For the past two weeks, the renminbi’s value has been relatively stable against both the US dollar and its official trade-weighted basket. But questions about the future trajectory of the renminbi have not gone away. Despite the central bank’s massive recent interventions, many market participants view the current “peg to a basket” as a temporary tool that will, at some...

    5
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Grand Bargain Or Grand Conflict With The US?

    For more than two centuries, China-US relations have swung back and forth between high expectations and dashed hopes. Today the stakes are higher than ever, as Beijing seeks to carve out a sphere of influence and Washington struggles to craft a response. And where the relationship is headed under a volatile President Trump is anyone’s guess.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Still Holding High Mao’s Banner

    Within China’s increasingly restrictive political landscape, neo-Maoists continue to thrive. Tolerated for now as Xi’s ideological allies, they could turn into his fiercest opposition should he surprisingly uphold his Third Plenum pledge to give a “decisive role” to the market.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Building A Bond Valuation Tool

    The “golden rule” of French Nobel laureate Maurice Allais states that over the long run, long term government bond yields always converge with the nominal structural growth rate of the economy. In this paper Charles sets out to build a government bond market valuation tool based on the Allais postulate.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Figuring Out Where The Ball Will Be

    Rugby players fall into one of two categories: the forwards, who typically go where the ball is (and in the process put their heads in places most sane people wouldn’t put their feet), and the backs, who try to go where the ball will be, which enables them to look good and keep their kit clean, but earns them the scorn of the forwards. Peter FitzSimons, the first Aussie to play for a French club (Brive), once remarked: “Come the revolution, the...

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Hong Kong: Meet The New Boss

    Meet the new boss. Same as the old boss? Last Sunday saw the “election” of Carrie Lam, CY Leung’s former Number 2, to the post of Hong Kong chief executive. The hope now has to be that, just as Robert Wagner in Austin Powers proved altogether more competent than Dr Evil, Hong Kong’s Number 2 will show herself to be more competent than her former boss in handling the territory’s affairs.

    3
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    Gavekal Research

    A Sino-Indian Powerhouse?

    Next week the leaders of the world’s two biggest emerging economies will meet for talks in Beijing. Together, China and India have a population of 2.6bn—36% of the global total—and a GDP exceeding US$12trn. They share a border nearly 4,000km long. Yet China trades more with Thailand than with its most populous neighbor, and there are eight times as many flights between Beijing and Bangkok per week as there are between Beijing and Delhi. The weak...

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    Keeping It Simple

    Three prices have a disproportionate impact on global financial prices: the oil price, the price of the US dollar, and US interest rates. Often the rest is just noise. In the long term, it is shifts in these three prices that drive economic cycles and determine the performance of almost any investment strategy. Take this year as an example. The investment environment has been dominated by:

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    Big Tech Is Not Standard Oil

    Back in May, Louis warned that the regulatory knives were coming out for Big Tech. In the worst case scenario for the dominant technology giants that have done so much to drive the stock market to new highs, Louis argued that they could even face the same treatment that Standard Oil received at the hands of the US government in 1911. Investors were forcibly reminded of this tightening regulatory squeeze yesterday when Google parent Alphabet...

    6
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Where The Rubber Meets The (Belt And) Road

    Ahead of next week’s Belt and Road Forum in Beijing, Tom Miller provides an update on the progress of Xi Jinping’s signature foreign policy. More than three years after its launch, China’s Belt and Road Initiative is starting to deliver useful infrastructure, and is clearly boosting construction volumes and stimulating new investment.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    A Late-Cycle Signal From US Factories

    Determining the exact extent of the US output gap at any point in time is immensely difficult, if not impossible. Earlier this month, KX suggested monitoring four indicators: the gap between actual unemployment and the “natural” rate; real corporate profits; profit margins, and the change of US CPI inflation. Today he adds another indicator to that list: the ratio of factory order backlogs to new orders. By this measure too, the US is running...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Xi Jinping’s China

    2017 will be a very political year for China. The short-term priority is a smooth economic run-up to the Communist Party Congress, when Xi Jinping will strengthen his grip on power. In the long term, questions are growing as to whether the Party is flexible enough to govern a dynamic society. This issue of CEQ assesses China’s political future.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: China In The Asia-Pacific

    China is attempting to become Asia’s new leader. The high costs of confronting it mean that the US’s regional influence is likely to dwindle. But widespread distrust of China means that many countries will continue to prefer investment from the EU, US and Japan. This issue of China Economic Quarterly investigates China’s role in the Asia-Pacific.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research July Call

    Recent efforts to open up China's stock and bond markets have granted deeper access for foreign investors. In Tuesday's conference call Thomas Gatley outlined what MSCI's decision to include A-shares in its indexes means for investors, while Chen Long argued that the next great bond bull market may happen in China.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Not Déjà Vu Again For The US

    With the mid-point of 2015 approaching it looks to be a case of “déjà vu again” for a US economy suffering early year blues. As with other “soft patch” periods, there are plausible explanations for this stodginess that don’t just involve beating up on statisticians for their seasonal adjustment techniques. The US indeed had a cold winter and the West Coast port strike disrupted trade flows. But the real question for investors is whether the US...

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    What Trump Will And Won’t Do

    After President Trump’s shock firing of his top law enforcement official, this week has seen the White House scramble to keep some semblance of control over the news agenda. This means that an administration that was already dialing back the radical parts of its reform agenda will have even less room to drive change.

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    A Slow Motion Game Changer

    After three years of teasing, MSCI has agreed to include Chinese domestically-listed stocks, or A-shares, in its main equity indexes. Yet, hopes that MSCI inclusion will quickly spur huge capital inflows and a sustained domestic bull market, are almost certainly wide of the mark.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The Jump in Foreign Exchange Loans Out of HK

    Since mid-2009 foreign currency loans have exploded in Hong Kong, particularly loans related to trade finance. This trend is primarily the result of US monetary policy: virtually-zero interest rates combined with quantitative easing. As the chart below shows, whenever the funding rate in Hong Kong (which follows US rates) is lower than the onshore rate in China, more people (especially importers) take advantage of this cheaper financing in Hong...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Chinese Dream (I): The Empire Strikes Back

    Xi Jinping’s project of national rejuvenation needs to be taken seriously, with an understanding of the history from which it springs.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Will Low Volatility Get Trumped?

    As we enter the final stretch of the exhausting US electoral cycle, the single most important question confronting investors may well be whether the current low volatility environment for equities, bonds, and exchange rates is dependent on politicians or not. Clearly, with the VIX hovering around 12, and with volatility in exchange rates barely noticeable (see Forget Central Banks, Watch Foreign Exchange Volatility), financial market...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Containing Capital Outflows

    China’s balance of payments show that 2016 was another big year for capital outflows, which accelerated in the second half. But Chen Long argues this pickup will not continue into 2017. Current outflows are not large enough to stop the central bank from pursuing its exchange-rate policy, which can be sustained for another couple of years.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Should Investors Chase Health Care Stocks?

    Years ago, when Charles attempted to retire, my mother promptly decided that retirement was the “worst of both worlds”: more husband and less money. She quickly put the kibosh on the idea. The US government is a little more complicated to run than the Gave household, yet health care policy also offers a “worst of both worlds” outcome—profligate spending and rising bureaucracy (from government interference) and eye-watering prices (from the...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    GaveKal Daily - China Selling JGBs

    A legendary macro investor once told us: 'you have not been a macro trader until you have lost money shorting JGBs'. Indeed, with its low yields, its terrible demographics and deteriorating fiscal position, shorting Japanese bonds has for years appeared to be the best 'low risk' trade out there. An underlying reality which probably explains why 94% of outstanding JGBs are held by the Japanese themselves: given the...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The “Experts” May Yet Be Right

    Last week Louis set out a comprehensive roadmap for 2017. I have just five points to add: two points of strong agreement (on Europe and the oil price); two of dissent (on US bonds and Britain); and one that echoes Louis’s uncertainty and anxiety, but for slightly different reasons (about the pressures on the US dollar and what they could mean for emerging markets). I will explore these specific issues of agreement and dissent in a lengthier...

    3
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    Gavekal Research

    Getting By Without Friends

    After a week spent in Europe antagonizing fellow democratic leaders, conspicuously failing to reaffirm the US’s commitment to defend its NATO allies, and driving Angela Merkel into an uncharacteristically histrionic speech about Europe’s need to go it alone on security policy, Trump came home and announced he is pulling the US out of the Paris Agreement on climate change.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Leninism Upgraded: Xi Jinping’s Authoritarian Innovations

    In order to cement Communist Party control and discipline, Xi Jinping has dismantled China’s successful model of ‘explorative governance’ and latitude for local initiative. China’s long-term success depends on whether he is willing to relax the reins after the 2017 Party Congress.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Don’t Sweat An Impeachment

    After weeks of ignoring ever wackier White House shenanigans, investors yesterday focused on US political risk. The revelation of memos that seem to offer prima facie evidence of the president obstructing justice means the chance of an impeachment has jumped from improbable to possible. As the government’s investigative machinery cranked up a notch yesterday, US equities experienced their worst day since last September and treasury yields fell...

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    The Gavekal Monthly: Our Top 12 Questions For 2017

    For our first Monthly of the year, we depart from our normal format to offer our thoughts on the dozen most important questions investors must face this year. Not surprisingly, the issues that rose to the top were the impact of the new Trump administration's policies on the dollar and US bond yields, and whether the eurozone will spend the year tearing itself apart. Also,oil prices, the risk of financial implosion in China, and where to...

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Are Border Adjustments Protectionist?

    The introduction of border adjustments into the US tax code is by far the most controversial part of the House Republicans’ “blueprint” for tax reform—with good reason. This reform alone would be a game-changer, with many winners and losers. This is why, like all major tax reforms, it faces an uphill battle to become law, and why it may never happen. But the same was said of a Donald Trump presidency, and of Brexit. So, investors still need to...

    5
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    5C Asia: Anyone For Recoupling?

    Last year saw Asia engage in a “re-coupling” but it was the wrong type: rather than an economic recoupling that captured something of the sunnier outlook for developed markets, Asia revealed its continued dependence on financial conditions in the big centers. Asian markets (excluding China and Japan) were hammered due to their reliance on foreign capital to lubricate trade and their financial systems.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Empty Promises Of SOE Reform

    At the close of 2016, Xi Jinping’s government vowed to speed up economic reform, and declared “breakthroughs” would be made in overhauling state-owned enterprises. Half a year on, these bold claims have not been matched by actions. The numerous reform trials can give the impression of activity, but real change remains a distant prospect.

    0
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    Choosing Between Disadvantages

    It was a record that Germany would rather not have announced, at least not this week. Yesterday official data showed that Europe’s über exporter racked up a current account surplus in 2016 of US$281bn versus a mere US$210bn for China. With the US running by far the largest offsetting deficit, such data means that the temperature between Washington and Berlin is likely to get hotter.

    4
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    Investing Along The New Silk Road

    In China, political slogans matter. They help to set the agenda, acting as political weather vanes. In recent months, “One Belt, One Road” has become a signature slogan of Xi Jinping’s administration. A contraction of “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “21st Century Maritime Silk Road,” “One Belt, One Road” describes Beijing’s policy of financing and building transport infrastructure across Eurasia, the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean—aka the...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Two Cheers For Hypocrisy

    Are the world’s two biggest economies headed for a “Thucydides trap,” in which China’s determination to carve out a sphere of influence in Asia provokes an all-out effort by the US to maintain its primacy in the Pacific?

    0
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    A Dream Of Asian Empire

    After years of passive diplomacy, China is now making it clear that it wants to play a substantive role on the global stage. In foreign policy, Xi Jinping’s “Chinese dream” means restoring China’s historical dominance in Asia. China is serious about winning friends and helping its neighbors to benefit from its rise, but its own interests come first: it wants to generate new trade networks, open up transit routes for its exports, and develop its...

    1
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ Q3 2013 - Retail

    China’s online price war erupted again this summer. To mark its 10th anniversary, JD.com—formerly known as 360buy.com—launched the first big online sales promotion of the year. “Save Rmb100 when you spend over Rmb399—AND get coupons worth Rmb618!” the country’s second-biggest online retailer promised its 100m customers. The promotion, which ran for a month, was a loss-leading strategy designed to capture consumers from the enemy—Alibaba’s Tmall....

    0
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    The Dollar In The Coming Quarter

    The first quarter of the year demonstrated once again that there is little more uncertain than a sure thing in the foreign exchange market. Rewind to mid-December, just before markets eased back for the holiday season, and the consensus firmly favored a stronger US dollar in 2017 . Of course, when sentiment is so strongly aligned, it means there are few marginal buyers left to enter the market. As a result, the consensus was confounded, as the...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    How Should The US Respond To China’s Rise?

    The longstanding US approach to a rising China—economic engagement and military balancing—no longer works. More muscular balancing, and smarter engagement, is now required.

    0
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    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research March Call

    Yesterday’s call had Cedric Gemehl and Anatole Kaletsky opine on political risk leading up to French and German national elections later this year. Nick Andrews argued that the eurozone recovery is becoming self-sustaining, and offered views on capturing the upside, while hedging against political risk.

    0
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    Politics Trumps Jobs

    So, it was a false alarm. By that I do not mean the Brexit vote, which remains, for reasons explained at the end of this note, the biggest threat to the world economy and to risk assets since the global financial crisis. The false alarm was the brief panic about a US recession caused by the slump in employment growth reported last month. As I said at the time there were four possible explanations for the shockingly weak May payrolls (see...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Secret Plan For World Domination

    Despite US President Barack Obama’s enforced absence, this week’s gathering of the leaders of Asia-Pacific economies made “significant progress” on one of his signature priorities: a new trade agreement that would join the US and 11 other countries. Negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have been underway since 2009 and are scheduled to wrap up by end-2013. Trade talks are usually as dry as unbuttered toast and attract similar...

    0
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    Our 2016 Holiday Reading List

    “All books are divisible into two classes,” said John Ruskin, “the books of the hour, and the books of all time.” This year’s list of works enjoyed by Gavekal staff in 2016 includes books from both categories; among them are an account of Russian nationalism, an examination of the sharing economy, and a look at the future of Japan. Happy reading.

    2
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    The Upside Of The Commodity Downside

    Once again, commodity prices are taking a beating. Since Wednesday the price of Brent blend crude oil has slumped by 7%. Over the last two months copper has slipped 8%, and iron ore futures traded in China are down a precipitous 30%. Coming on top of data that showed the US economy grew by a meager annualized 0.7% in the first quarter, and the recent tightening in China’s credit conditions, the latest slide in commodity prices has been...

    2
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    A New Forex Driver?

    Foreign exchange markets are serial monogamists. The currency exchange rate between two economies can be driven by factors such as differences in their respective interest rates, monetary policies, purchasing parity levels, return on invested capital, current account deficits, trade balances and inflation rates. But at any point in time, only one single factor is likely to be the primary driver of performance, which is why currency markets tend...

    3
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    The Darkest Hour Before Euro Dawn

    Two weeks ago we suggested that the euro’s decline against the US dollar—probably the clearest consensus trade of 2015—could soon be over. As luck would have it, we published this article on the very day the euro rebounded from a 12-year low against the US dollar of US$1.05 (see Beware The Euro Consensus). Dumb luck of this kind is certainly not evidence of wisdom or special insight. But now that the modest bounce following the euro’s March 13...

    5
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    The Battle To Command The Logos

    The “Logos” encompasses a society’s language, its way of looking at the world, and its dominant political narrative—he who commands it has his hands on all the levers of political power. Every so often, however, a new communication technology emerges that allows the rise of a new Logos to challenge the old.

    6
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    5C Overview: Demography vs Technology

    We have written a lot about two trends with big potential impacts on the balance of power between labor and capital. The first is demography, which since World War II has been a tailwind for growth, but is now turning into a headwind. Virtually every major economy faces a steep fall in its worker-to-retiree ratio, even the US which is often thought to be exempt from demographic destiny because of its relatively high birth rate and openness to...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Goose Stepping Into Isolation

    China’s military parade to celebrate victory over Japan 70 years ago will be lapped up by a patriotic nation that revels in shows of national strength. But rather than winning it new friends, China’s military chest-thumping is only scaring its neighbors into the arms of the US. The parade reflects not strength but a chronic lack of self-confidence.

    0
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    The Big US Dollar Risk

    The US dollar enters 2017 up by 25% against a broad basket of currencies over the last two-and-half years. The single biggest question for investors in the new year must be whether the dollar continues its bull run.

    4
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    China’s Kim Problem

    Last weekend's extreme tension on the Korean peninsula is just the latest episode to severely test Beijing’s patience with North Korea. Yet even as elements of the Chinese leadership tire of Kim Jong Un’s grandstanding, China remains unlikely to make a bold move that threatens the regime. Despite acute US pressure, China will seek to preserve the status quo.

    0
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    What Is The PBOC Really UP To?

    The People’s Bank of China sprang a surprise this morning, lifting the daily fixing rate for the US$-CNY exchange rate by 1.9% and triggering an effective 1.8% devaluation of the renminbi—the currency’s biggest one day move since July 2005 when Beijing started its exchange rate reforms. At first glance today’s move looks like a response to months of dismal trade data. In our view, however, today’s exchange rate move is a lot more than a panic...

    10
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    What Is The PBOC Really Up To?

    The People’s Bank of China sprang a surprise this morning, lifting the daily fixing rate for the US$-CNY exchange rate by 1.9% and triggering an effective 1.8% devaluation of the renminbi—the currency’s biggest one day move since July 2005 when Beijing started its exchange rate reforms. At first glance today’s move looks like a response to months of dismal trade data. In our view, however, today’s exchange rate move is a lot more than a panic...

    2
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    New Economic Realities

    As we close the book on 2015, it is worth sifting through our research to find the patterns that are likely to influence events in 2016 and beyond. Three stand out.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    It’s About The Dollar, Not The Renminbi

    In my 50 year career working in financial markets, I have never seen the money supply of one country move across the border to another country. Hence I must confess to being perplexed when reading recent commentary fretting about “capital flight” from China. Never mind that China’s highest denomination bill is RMB100, meaning that a fleet of trucks would be needed to move any meaningful sums into Hong Kong, but the country still has foreign...

    1
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    A Brexit-Induced Recantation

    Exactly two months have now passed since the Brexit referendum. It is now an appropriate time to review what has happened, and what hasn’t, since June 23. As a quintessential member of the elite that was angrily repudiated by a majority of British voters, this referendum was a profound emotional trauma. Therefore, my initial reaction turned out to be completely wrong.

    10
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    London Seminar — March 2017

    In Gavekal’s seminar in London last week Will Denyer, Charles Gave, Tom Miller and Anatole Kaletsky presented their macroeconomic outlooks and offered investors asset allocation advice.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The World's New Tax Haven

    In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, there was a sense that the systemic failures it revealed would spark a radical overhaul of the global financial architecture. Eight years on, that has not happened: an exception is perhaps offshore finance. The US led the way with its Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), which targets US citizens with footloose money. A more ambitious initiative was launched in 2009 by the G20; it aimed for...

    3
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    Real Yields In The Driving Seat

    Notwithstanding yesterday’s bounce, the stock market is a nervous place just now. After riding a post-Brexit rebound that saw both the S&P 500 and the Nasdaq Composite scale record highs on minimal volatility, investors are increasingly wondering about the extent of the potential near term downside, not just in the US but around the world

    2
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    Five Corners (28 January): In Central Banks We Trust

    Overview: When central banks led a war on inflation in the late 1970s and 80s they kept on fighting long after the enemy was beaten into submission. They are likely to take the same approach of using overwhelming force in today’s fight against deflation, says Anatole. United States: The Swiss may have given forward guidance a bad name, but the Fed should be taken at its word, argues Will Denyer. Unlike Anatole, he thinks that interest rate...

    3
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