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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Struggling To Reform The Belt And Road

    China’s much-criticized Belt and Road Initiative will become “open, green and clean,” Xi Jinping pledged last week. Do these new promises mean an end to the debt traps, kickbacks and white elephants that the infrastructure spree has been accused of fostering? In this piece, Tom argues Beijing will struggle to fundamentally reform the initiative.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The End Of China's ODI Party

    Beijing’s decision to use foreign acquisitions as a tool of state industrial policy has badly backfired. With advanced economies stiffening their resistance to Chinese investment, China’s decade-long outward direct investment spree looks spent. In this piece, Tom explains how the boom ended and where funds will flow in the future.

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    Gavekal Research

    The Global Car Industry Catches Chinese Flu

    If the auto industry is a bellwether of global economic health, then much of the world is looking sick. The second half of 2018 was painful for carmakers in all the major auto markets, and 2019 is shaping up to be as bad. Is this just a passing malady that carmakers will soon shrug off, or a chronic condition they will have to manage for years to come?

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    Gavekal Research

    A Careless Loss Of Indian Central Bankers

    To lose one central bank governor may be regarded as a misfortune. To lose a second one, as India did yesterday, looks like carelessness bordering on recklessness. Urjit Patel’s resignation, after resisting months of pressure from the ruling BJP to ease credit conditions and hand over some of its cash reserves, is another black mark against the government.

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    Gavekal Research

    Countering The Belt And Road

    In its escalating rivalry with China, the US has a new target: the Belt and Road Initiative. But both the US and Europe are struggling to redefine the way they win friends and influence people with development finance. Tom argues that the somewhat quieter middle way being pursued by Japan is delivering it both influence and profits.

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    Gavekal Research

    JAM Today For Indian Fintech

    There is a Dickensian quality to Indian finance just now as banks struggle under bad debt piles and finance companies face a wholesale funding crunch after a recent high profile default. Yet if these are the worst of times for credit intermediaries in India, there is a clear silver lining as fintech firms capitalize on a national biometric database.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Building The Northern Powerhouse

    After a decade of splurging on infrastructure projects, China’s local governments are now having to cut back. But Beijing has continued to pour money into centrally supported initiatives, particularly Xi Jinping’s pet project for developing the region surrounding Beijing. In this piece, Tom reports on how this northern megaproject is progressing.

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    Why Indian Tourists Are The New Chinese

    Some 25mn Indians traveled abroad last year, making sub-continent tourists increasingly important for a range of major destinations. They may not yet rival Chinese travellers who are by far the biggest group of globe-trotters, but in this piece Tom argues that is only a matter of time. Already, it is cheaper for Indians to travel to a range of overseas destinations than within India itself and the middle class increasingly has the travel bug.

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    India’s Logistics Revolution

    India's logistics sector is so inefficient that getting goods from producers to consumers accounts for about 17% of national output, or twice the level in most developed economies. The result is retarded growth and weakened competitiveness. But thanks to a nationwide goods and services tax, growing consumer demand and rising land prices, consolidation and modernization is afoot across the sector.

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    Going Underground (And Overground) In Delhi And Beyond

    India is rapidly adding new urban metro systems, with ten already built, five under construction and 17 in the planning stages. Tom argues that it is following in China’s footsteps, but unlike China, foreign equipment suppliers and contractors look likely to be major beneficiaries of the Indian build-out.

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    Gavekal Research

    Why India’s Growth Is Not Jobless

    India desperately needs to create jobs if it is not to squander what may be the biggest “demographic dividend” in economic history. On the face of things, it looks to be blowing that opportunity, as in recent years the size of the workforce has actually shrunk. In this piece, Tom argues that the raw data obscures a picture that while not ideal, is far better than it looks.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Dangerous Dealing Along The Belt And Road

    In countries involved with China’s Belt-and-Road Initiative, there is a growing realization of the risks to signing up for the scheme. As debt has mounted and fears of economic dependence have increased, a backlash has begun. But as Tom explains, the lure of easy Chinese capital is a dangerous habit that many countries will struggle to kick.

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    Gavekal Research

    Dreaming Of A Better India

    In a year’s time, 900 million Indians will be eligible to go to the polls in India’s general election. Two-thirds of them are likely to cast a vote, including 200 million aged under 30. Youth politics in India matters as nowhere else: the world’s biggest democracy has nearly as many young voters as the rest put together. So what do young Indians want, and who will they vote for?

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    Why Does India Have No Clothes?

    Given its size and comparative advantages, India should have more than a hundred million people working in the garment industry. Bad policies and missed opportunities means it has about half that number. The government has big plans to fix this situation and Tom recently spent time meeting with textile entrepreneurs in and around Delhi to see if this is changing. This is his report card.

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    Making In Delhi

    Narendra Modi’s “Make in India” initiative is supposed to transform India from an industrial laggard into a global manufacturing hub. Tom and Udith recently kicked the tires in the industrial heartlands surrounding Delhi and can confirm that China, for now, does not have serious competition. Yet they found some surprisingly encouraging developments that point to the policy in pockets displaying genuine success.

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    Gavekal Research

    Securing The Indo-Pacific

    Forty years after the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was dissolved, Tom argues that an expanded version of that “Asian NATO” concept may be developing, but this time the potential theater of operations stretches across the Indo-Pacific and includes the full panoply of great powers. What has not changed is that China remains the protagonists’ key bogeyman.

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    Selling India’s Housing Dream — Part II

    When Indians visit China for the first time, it often comes as a shock: China is more materially developed than they could ever have imagined. And when Chinese visit India for the first time, it too comes as a shock: India is even more chaotic, dirty and materially backward than they had been told!

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    Gavekal Research

    Selling India’s Housing Dream — Part I

    India’s economy is in a slump, laid low by a chronic lack of investment and weak job creation. How can India both revive growth and generate jobs for millions of low-skilled workers? Tom argues that one answer lies in the construction sector, specifically the mass buildout of affordable housing.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Southwest Rising

    For almost two decades, China’s government has been pouring investment into its inland provinces. Tom Miller visits the southwest and finds the results have been striking: major cities have modernized and incomes are up substantially. Better infrastructure and industrial relocation are now arguably driving a self-sustaining regional growth story.

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    Gavekal Research

    Into My Indian Arms

    Last week Louis argued that the most likely growth area for richly valued defense contractors was Western-aligned powers in East Asia. The problem was that despite rising regional tensions, India and Japan were playing hard to get (see Should Investors Chase Defense Stocks?). Last week’s events on the Korean peninsula should give the merchants of death a fresh calling card in Tokyo, Seoul and Taipei. Yet while garnering fewer headlines, the...

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: China In The Asia-Pacific

    China is attempting to become Asia’s new leader. The high costs of confronting it mean that the US’s regional influence is likely to dwindle. But widespread distrust of China means that many countries will continue to prefer investment from the EU, US and Japan. This issue of China Economic Quarterly investigates China’s role in the Asia-Pacific.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The East Is Rising … Isn’t It?

    Will the Asia-Pacific region will shape global politics and economics in the 21st Century, as the West’s centuries-long domination of world affairs draws to a close, or will unseen threats in Asia, from economic stagnation to political unrest and growing military tensions, throw a spanner in the works? Tom Miller reviews two books that each present their case.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Belt And Road To Leadership

    China’s Belt and Road Initiative elicits widespread skepticism and concern, while the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership is often seen as a poor cousin of the aborted Trans-Pacific Partnership. But they are currently the only credible plans for greater Asian integration.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Beijing’s Non-Capital Idea

    China wants to build a new satellite city to take over Beijing’s “non-capital functions,” and their associated workers. In this piece, Tom Miller examines the Xiong’an New Area and the government’s grand plans to cap Beijing’s population and spread wealth to surrounding regions. He finds the economic benefits are unlikely to outweigh the costs.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Where The Rubber Meets The (Belt And) Road

    Ahead of next week’s Belt and Road Forum in Beijing, Tom Miller provides an update on the progress of Xi Jinping’s signature foreign policy. More than three years after its launch, China’s Belt and Road Initiative is starting to deliver useful infrastructure, and is clearly boosting construction volumes and stimulating new investment.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Chinese Football: Here We Go

    The excessive money spent on China’s domestic football league has raised both eyebrows and fears of yet another Chinese bubble. But the sector has undeniable assets: a large domestic fan-base, strong political backing, and countless big businesses with a taste for the game.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Healthcare—Crisis Or Opportunity?

    China’s growing economy has brought its people longer lives, but also a new set of health problems. Though the government is trying to improve coverage, change is happening slowly. So there is a growing opportunity for private companies to fill the gap. This issue of China Economic Quarterly investigates the nation’s health problems, and solutions.

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    Gavekal Research

    Modi’s Big Political Win

    After a shaky few months, India’s reform project is back on track. The ruling BJP’s unexpectedly strong performance in state elections will enable Prime Minister Narendra Modi to continue with pro-business policies that should both deliver economic growth and buoy equity markets.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Investment Backlash Begins

    Xi Jinping’s passionate defense of the globalized economy at Davos last week was, in reality, a sign that Beijing knows the tide is turning against it. The surge of Chinese outward direct investment in recent years has already sparked a backlash, and the political momentum for more restrictions on Chinese investment now looks unstoppable.

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    Gavekal Research

    Video: A Coming US-China Trade War?

    In this video interview Arthur explains how a US-China trade war may play out and the implication for capital outflows from China

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Video: The Dissonance In US-China Relations

    Once Donald Trump occupies the White House he is sure to take aim at China in the form of new tariffs, anti-dumping actions and the labeling of the country as a currency manipulator. What is unclear is whether such actions reflect a tough negotiating stance, or instead a fundamental shift in the strategic equation. In this video interview, Arthur explains why the mixed messages coming out of Washington have the potential to spark a dangerous...

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    Gavekal Research

    The Alchemist’s Apprentice

    If done right urbanization can be considered development alchemy as it transforms surplus rural labor and simple building materials into the “gold” of economic growth. India has lagged China’s embrace of city life over the last 30 years, but that is now changing and the result could be transformative for the Indian economy’s growth outlook.

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    Gavekal Research

    Arthur Kroeber: A New Era Of Sino-US Relations

    While Donald Trump has threatened to slap huge tariffs on Chinese exports, Arthur thinks this would be an act of self-harm given the economic co-dependence between China and the US. In this video interview, he maps out the likely evolution of relations between the two countries in the years ahead.

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    Gavekal Research

    India’s Banknote Bombshell

    While the world’s attention was riveted on this week’s US election, India sprang a surprise.On Tuesday Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the immediate demonetization of all existing banknotes with denominations of INR500 and INR1,000—note issues which together accounted for nearly 90% of the total currency in circulation by value.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Advantage Shifts To China

    Donald Trump’s victory was also a victory for Xi Jinping. Trump’s more isolationist stance and transactional attitude hands the edge to China in the battle for influence in Asia. Trump’s threats of economic warfare with China are also mostly empty; if anything, Beijing has gained a bit of advantage in its bilateral ties with the US.

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    Gavekal Research

    Can India Grow By Day?

    “India grows at night,” goes a popular saying, “when the government sleeps.” Prime Minister Narendra Modi has promised to change all that as he thinks that effective governance will enable India to “grow by day.” In this piece Tom assesses the changing mechanics of government in India with a particular focus on digital solutions that have the potential to bypass an often self-interested and sclerotic bureaucracy.

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    Gavekal Research

    India’s Race To The Top

    What do Apache helicopters and one-fifth of the world’s vaccines have in common? They are manufactured in India’s Telangana state. How about Apple, Google and Uber? They are all opening their largest development bases outside the US in Hyderabad, the state capital, following in the footsteps of Facebook and Microsoft, which have their head India offices there. Amazon, too, is setting up its second-largest global delivery base in the city. And...

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Techno-nationalism 2.0

    China’s economy may be slowing, but its ability to cause technological anxiety has never been greater. Many are worried China could succeed in its ambition of becoming a global technology hub, at the expense of existing leaders. This issue of the CEQ focuses on how China is moving up the technology ladder, and the risk this triggers a backlash.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Open Checkbook, Closed Market

    The rich world is growing uneasy over the rapid expansion of China’s investment abroad. A rise in protectionist rules is likely unless China does more to satisfy reciprocity concerns by opening its own market.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Demographic Dividend Or Demographic Nightmare?

    Among the Herculean challenges facing the government of India, job creation ranks first. Simply put, the number of new jobs is not keeping up with economic growth—a huge problem in a country where half the population is aged below 25. India needs to create roughly 8mn new jobs every year to absorb new entrants into the labor force. In addition, it needs to create more opportunities both for farmers seeking better-paying non-agricultural work and...

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    Gavekal Research

    Can ‘Make In India’ Work?

    In September 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched an initiative to transform India from an industrial laggard into a global manufacturing hub. The “Make in India” plan is sorely needed: in 2014, India’s merchandise exports accounted for a paltry 1.7% share of the global total. That was on a par with Taiwan, whose population is smaller than Delhi’s. India relies heavily on imports of consumer goods, especially from China, and runs a large...

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Boring Infrastructure Bank

    The creation of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank promised to reshape the world’s economic architecture, and greatly worried the US. Yet now that the AIIB is a reality, it is not challenging the existing Bretton Woods institutions. It is on course to resemble them—and cooperate with them. In fact, the AIIB has become just a bit boring.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Migrant Housing Solution

    In hundreds of smaller cities around China, rows of apartment blocks lie unsold. Can this inventory ever be absorbed? The government hopes migrant workers, long too poor to urban property, will be part of the solution. On a recent trip to southwest China, I did find signs that migrants are becoming a factor at the low end of the housing market.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The End Of The Migrant Miracle?

    China’s growth has long been driven by the shift of millions of people from low-paid farm work to better urban jobs. But latest survey of migrant workers shows the flood of rural labor slowing to a trickle. So is the migrant miracle ending? Not quite. Slower economic growth is curbing migration, but other causes of the slowdown are more benign.

    0
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    Why India Can Move Faster

    India’s lack of efficient roads and railways lowers productivity, depresses aggregate demand, raises costs and stymies trade—all impediments to economic growth. The good news is that India’s latest infrastructure push, financed initially by public investment, is showing signs of traction. The latest government budget committed a hefty US$32bn to roads, rail and other infrastructure, a big increase within a broader environment of fiscal...

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ Q1 2016 - The End Of Non-Interference

    China’s Strong Arm: Protecting Citizens and Assets Abroad by Jonas Parello-Plesner and Mathieu Duchâtel (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2015)

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Avoiding The Japan Trap

    Growth is slowing, debt is rising, and the government is openly talking about "zombie companies" in key industries. This is China today, but there are also echoes of 1990s Japan. This issue of the CEQ examines the similarities and differences, and handicaps China’s chances of dodging a Japanese scenario of low-growth, high-debt stagnation.

    0
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    Bridging India’s Financing Gap

    India’s shoddy infrastructure is the stuff of legend. Ranked 87th in the World Economic Forum’s infrastructure quality index, much of it would not look out of place in sub-Saharan Africa. Mumbai’s rickety old airport, famous for its frequent delays and scuttling rats, once told visitors everything they needed to know. Yet the city’s sleek and airy new terminal presents a fresh image: five times bigger than the old airport, it is clean, efficient...

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    Video: On India's Growth

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    Two Cheers For India

    The end of China’s investment boom means the global economy is seeking a new driver of growth. India’s economy outpaced China’s last year, making it the world’s fastest-growing large economy. Tom and Udith analyze what India must do to fulfill its potential

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