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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Beijing’s Non-Capital Idea

    China wants to build a new satellite city to take over Beijing’s “non-capital functions,” and their associated workers. In this piece, Tom Miller examines the Xiong’an New Area and the government’s grand plans to cap Beijing’s population and spread wealth to surrounding regions. He finds the economic benefits are unlikely to outweigh the costs.

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    Gavekal Research

    Don’t Buy The Smartphone Hype

    As Apple prepares to launch its anniversary iPhone and Samsung unveils models that don’t blow up, technology equities in the US and Asia have soared on hopes for a new smartphone cycle. After 2016 saw high-end smartphone sales fall, investors are betting that consumers respond to gee-whizz gadgetry by replacing their devices more often. We are not so sure.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Corporate Deleveraging Is Ending, Not Beginning

    The recent financial crackdown may give the impression that “China is finally getting serious about corporate deleveraging.” This impression is wrong: while leverage is already declining, this is likely to stop in 2017. Worries about zombie companies have also faded as rising profits and falling rates make it easier to service corporate debt.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Great Corn Crash

    China’s “supply-side reform” measures have helped drive a recovery in prices of industrial commodities. In agricultural commodities, the name is the same, but the results are very different: the price of corn fell 44% from its peak after the government removed price supports. Now that prices have adjusted, quantities will follow: imports will fall.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Regulatory Stress Is Still Bearable

    The main source of uncertainty in the Chinese economy right now is the financial crackdown launched in March. In this piece, Andrew looks at the April data and finds that the regulatory campaign’s impact has so far been contained. This supports our call that the regulatory stress is a bigger problem for asset markets than for the real economy.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Where The Rubber Meets The (Belt And) Road

    Ahead of next week’s Belt and Road Forum in Beijing, Tom Miller provides an update on the progress of Xi Jinping’s signature foreign policy. More than three years after its launch, China’s Belt and Road Initiative is starting to deliver useful infrastructure, and is clearly boosting construction volumes and stimulating new investment.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    More Dollar Weakness Is Good News For The Renminbi

    The renminbi has had a surprisingly good year, thanks in large part to the weakness of the US dollar. In this piece, Chen Long argues that dollar weakness will likely continue—and with it a benign environment for capital flows and China’s currency policy. Even a rise in the renminbi is a prospect that can no longer be dismissed out of hand.

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    Gavekal Research

    The Upside Of The Commodity Downside

    Once again, commodity prices are taking a beating. Since Wednesday the price of Brent blend crude oil has slumped by 7%. Over the last two months copper has slipped 8%, and iron ore futures traded in China are down a precipitous 30%. Coming on top of data that showed the US economy grew by a meager annualized 0.7% in the first quarter, and the recent tightening in China’s credit conditions, the latest slide in commodity prices has been...

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Cyclically Fine, Structurally, Well...

    Optimism about China’s growth is now higher than it has been for years, after the notable recovery in the last couple of quarters. But in this piece, Andrew argues China still can’t escape a further growth slowdown, because its continued reliance on state-driven investment is sapping productivity growth and undermining the private sector.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    How Long Can The Construction Rebound Last?

    Chinese growth prospects look quite good in 2017, thanks to the recovery in construction, but how long can it last? In this piece, Rosealea unpacks the inventory dynamics behind the rebound. Given the strong start to 2017, it now looks like low inventories can support growth in construction not just in 2017, but also well into 2018.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Riding Out The Regulatory Storm

    Chinese financial officials are stirring up a regulatory storm with their new crackdown on various forms of speculation, arbitrage and risky behavior. Though much is still unclear, the campaign is likely to lead to tighter liquidity and slower credit growth. But the more immediate risk is its impact on the domestic equity and bond markets.

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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research Call On The French And UK Elections

    In a special Gavekal Research Conference Call following the results of the first round of the French presidential election, Charles Gave and Cedric Gemehl presented their analysis of Marine Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron’s prospects in the second round in two weeks. Anatole Kaletsky presented his view of British politics and the future of the Brexit process following Theresa May calling for a snap election in June.

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    Gavekal Research

    China’s Kim Problem

    Last weekend's extreme tension on the Korean peninsula is just the latest episode to severely test Beijing’s patience with North Korea. Yet even as elements of the Chinese leadership tire of Kim Jong Un’s grandstanding, China remains unlikely to make a bold move that threatens the regime. Despite acute US pressure, China will seek to preserve the status quo.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Pivot To Regulatory Tightening

    China’s economic data were once again surprisingly good. This solid growth momentum will allow policymakers to pivot more to reducing financial risk and curbing speculative property purchases. But while policy will continue to tighten at the margin, Long argues this will now occur more through regulatory tools than rate hikes.

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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research April Call

    In the aftermath of the first summit meeting between Xi Jinping and Donald Trump, the critical issues remain the same: a prickly trade and investment relationship which American businesses feel is increasingly skewed against them, and rising danger of confrontation over North Korea. In the background lies the question of how long China’s current economic expansion will keep running. Arthur Kroeber and China policy analyst Yanmei Xie discussed...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    What Is Happening With The Tourism Numbers?

    China’s outbound tourism is clearly a big deal, but statisticians are having problems figuring out just how big: a huge upward revision has just been followed by a huge downward one. In this piece, Ernan cross-checks the numbers, and finds that Chinese foreign travel is growing rapidly, despite confusing revisions and falling travel to Hong Kong.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Reflation Without Inflation

    China’s producer price index slowed slightly year-on-year in March. However, this does not signal a halt to Chinese growth, nor is it likely to cause equities to roll over argues Thomas. The momentum from last year’s big housing stimulus remains, and the level of commodity prices is high enough to keep profit margins decent, supporting corporate investment and wages.

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    Gavekal Research

    Downfall Of A Regulator

    The chief of China’s insurance regulator has become the latest “crocodile” to be snared by the Communist Party’s anti-corruption agency—the first leading financial regulator to face such scrutiny. Chen Long outlines two important implications for the insurance sector and for China’s financial markets.

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    Gavekal Research

    Squeezings From The Citrus Summit

    Last week’s Citrus Summit between Xi Jinping and Donald Trump came in with a gale of empty punditry and drifted away on a warm breeze of genial platitudes. Arthur argues that the risk of a damaging trade war between the two countries has now evaporated, and that the directionless White House has yet to sort out its economic priorities on China.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Worst Is Over For Mass Consumer Goods

    It’s been a rough few years for Chinese consumer-goods firms: sales growth for items from soft drinks to instant noodles to sportswear has slowed dramatically since the 2000s, and price wars have slashed margins. In this piece, Thomas argues that the worst is now over: our models point to a more gradual and manageable slowdown in coming years.

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    Gavekal Research

    London Seminar — March 2017

    In Gavekal’s seminar in London last week Will Denyer, Charles Gave, Tom Miller and Anatole Kaletsky presented their macroeconomic outlooks and offered investors asset allocation advice.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Macro Update: A Strong Start To A Stable Year

    In our latest quarterly chartbook, Chen Long reviews the latest data and the broadly positive outlook for 2017. Industrial reflation likely peaked in Q1, but the momentum of investment and consumption is solid. Policy is getting marginally tighter as the housing market keeps surprising, but the moves are gradual in this politically sensitive year.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Hong Kong: Meet The New Boss

    Meet the new boss. Same as the old boss? Last Sunday saw the “election” of Carrie Lam, CY Leung’s former Number 2, to the post of Hong Kong chief executive. The hope now has to be that, just as Robert Wagner in Austin Powers proved altogether more competent than Dr Evil, Hong Kong’s Number 2 will show herself to be more competent than her former boss in handling the territory’s affairs.

    3
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    Gavekal Research

    Hong Kong Seminar — March 2017

    In Gavekal’s Asia focused seminar in Hong Kong last week Arthur Kroeber, Udith Sikand and Tom Holland presented their outlooks for the rest of the year.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Shaky Foundation For Iron Ore

    Iron ore prices are still high, but for how much longer? Returning from a field trip, Rosealea is now more convinced prices will fall. A government campaign to close low-end steel producers is aggravating cyclical swings rather than changing the structure of the industry. As supply is now rising to meet demand, prices will come under pressure.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    A-Shares Come In From The Cold

    Last year, MSCI raised three objections which prohibited the inclusion of China’s onshore A-share markets in its benchmark indexes. In a document published yesterday MSCI suggested two of those obstacles can now be overcome. Chances are high that the third objection can also be dealt with, allowing the inclusion of A-shares as early as this year.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Sanctions With Chinese Characteristics

    Since South Korea decided to host a US missile-defense system, China has restricted tourism and closed local operations of Korean firms. The dispute will mean some economic pain for Korea, but no lasting damage. But China is ever more willing to use such “sanctions with Chinese characteristics” to disrupt trade with countries that displease it.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The State Of The State Sector

    After forty years of market reforms, state-owned enterprises retain an exceptionally large role in China’s economy. Though their financial performance is deteriorating and their debts are growing, SOEs’ share of the economy is rising rather than falling. In this chartbook, Andrew pulls together the data to show the true state of China’s SOEs.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research March Call

    Yesterday’s call had Cedric Gemehl and Anatole Kaletsky opine on political risk leading up to French and German national elections later this year. Nick Andrews argued that the eurozone recovery is becoming self-sustaining, and offered views on capturing the upside, while hedging against political risk.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Tightening That Dare Not Speak Its Name

    China’s central bank has raised short-term policy rates for the second time this year—while going to great lengths to avoid signaling an aggressive tightening. The central bank likely still hopes that a coming roll-over in producer price inflation will calm sentiment, and that other, non-monetary measures will help cool down the property market.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The Risk Picture Diminishes

    Yesterday’s 25bp rate rise from the US Federal Reserve was universally expected. The relative dovishness of Fed officials was not. With headline CPI inflation in the US running at a brisk 2.7% in February, ahead of the meeting at least some market participants had been pricing in four rate hikes this year. But after the latest dot plot signaled that policymakers continue to see only three hikes—including yesterday’s—in 2017, those expectations...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Older And Unhealthier

    China’s rapid development came with impressive improvements in basic health indicators. Yet growing richer and older is now creating tremendous health challenges. Without swift action, China is heading for a public health crisis.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Public Health, Private Gains

    Failings in China’s public health system open up great opportunities for private players. Yet, to be successful, they will have to navigate a changing legal environment, swim with the policy tide, and cope with intense competition.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    For China, Trump Is A Paper Tiger

    The risk of a trade war between China and the US is fading as economic pragmatism gains ground, despite administrative incompetence in Washington. But Trump’s America-alone approach is weakening the US’s hand while China’s economic leverage grows ever stronger.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Debating Reflation And Tightening

    We expect only marginal and gradual tightening from the PBOC. But three factors could make it more hawkish: higher than expected inflation, rising financial risk, and a shift in the politics of growth.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Chinese Football: Here We Go

    The excessive money spent on China’s domestic football league has raised both eyebrows and fears of yet another Chinese bubble. But the sector has undeniable assets: a large domestic fan-base, strong political backing, and countless big businesses with a taste for the game.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Ghost Of A Communist Past

    Despite what Beijing thinks, political liberalization wasn’t what brought down the USSR. The economy did. Andrew Batson reviews Chris Miller's The Struggle to Save the Soviet Economy.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Healthcare—Crisis Or Opportunity?

    China’s growing economy has brought its people longer lives, but also a new set of health problems. Though the government is trying to improve coverage, change is happening slowly. So there is a growing opportunity for private companies to fill the gap. This issue of China Economic Quarterly investigates the nation’s health problems, and solutions.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    An Early Harvest Of Bumper Profits

    China’s listed companies won’t report their final Q4 earnings for another month, but preliminary numbers show it was their best quarter since 2010: profits for the median company jumped 28% in Q4 after a 25% rise in Q3. Strong earnings mean that fundamentals are supporting the slow but steady rally in A-shares that is now about nine months old.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The North Korean Wedge Between The US And China

    This week’s missile launches by North Korea, the latest in a recent series of provocations, are forcing the US into a position where it must take steps to limit the threat to itself and its Asian allies. But such moves are certain to antagonize China, and shatter the fiction that the US and China have common interests in dealing with North Korea.

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Relief For Workers Is Coming

    Premier Li Keqiang says pressure on employment is growing, so he has raised the government’s target for urban job creation in 2017. Ernan however disagrees with the premier: the pressure on China’s job market will actually ease somewhat this year, as the cyclical recovery in the economy means that companies have less need to cut jobs.

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Fiscal Stimulus? What Fiscal Stimulus?

    China’s latest budget report reinforces its recent shift toward marginally dialing back economic stimulus. In 2016, the finance ministry raised the deficit to 3% of GDP from 2.4% in 2015; for 2017, it is standing pat, targeting a 3% deficit again. Less publicized but more relevant is the fact that off-budget public works spending is also slowing.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    On Borrowed Time In Hong Kong

    Last month, home prices in Hong Kong’s secondary market climbed to a record high, up more than 150% from the depths of the financial crisis. At the same time, Hong Kong’s stock market has been among the world’s strongest major markets so far this year, comfortably outperforming the S&P 500. The buoyancy of Hong Kong assets owes more than a little to investor enthusiasm for the global reflation trade, and to inflows of Chinese money. But more...

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Picking Apart The Iron Ore Conundrum

    Is China’s continued rally in iron ore prices the result of benign structural change in the steel sector, or frenzied financial speculation? Rosealea and Arthur review the competing explanations, and find both have some merit. So while a lot has to go right to avoid an ore price crash, this correction could still take a while to materialize.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Strategy Monthly: Reflation Gets A China Boost

    For the last three months, markets have been focused on “Trumpflation”. But the global reflation trade began long before Donald Trump’s November election, with China’s surprisingly strong growth rebound early last year. This suggests that China’s growth performance in 2017 will be a key factor in determining the sustainability of global reflation. In this edition of Gavekal’s Strategy Monthly, Arthur Kroeber and Chen Long argue that China’s...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A-Shares Ride An IPO Boom

    The state of initial public offerings is one of the Chinese stock market’s longest running embarrassments: regulators have been holding up IPO approvals for hundreds of firms for years now. But they are now finally picking up the pace, making it easier for younger, fast-growing firms to list—though full deregulation of IPOs is not on the agenda.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    A Qualified Positive For Chinese Banks

    The Hong Kong-listed H-shares of mainland Chinese financials are the best performing segment of one of the world’s strongest markets year-to-date. So far this year, the H-share index is up 12% in US dollar terms, driven largely by gains in the stocks of China’s big banks and insurers. So it is natural for investors to sit up and take notice on reports that China’s big four financial regulators have drafted a joint proposal to tighten their...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Hong Kong Seminar — February 2017

    Gavekal’s global macroeconomic seminar in Hong Kong in February featured Anatole Kaletsky, Will Denyer and Louis-Vincent Gave. They presented on the global investment outlook under a Trump presidency, the decline in US productivity, and the sustainability of the "Trumpflation" rally.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Three Risks To The Monetary Policy Outlook

    China’s central bank is striking a hawkish tone by pledging to curb speculation and leverage, but its actual tightening has been marginal and gradual. What might shift its stance to something tougher? In this piece, Chen Long evaluates three things that could push the PBOC to tighten more: inflation, financial risk, and the politics of growth.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Secret Ingredient In Corporate Deleveraging

    Debt is rising rapidly in China, yet the debt-to-equity ratios of large public companies have still fallen. The secret of this deleveraging is that regulators allowed firms to raise lots of new equity through private placements. But regulators are now setting a higher bar for those deals, so this deleveraging formula won’t work as well in 2017.

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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research February Call

    In Gavekal Research’s February conference call, Louis-Vincent Gave delves into the unexpected origins of the reflation trade in order to assess its future prospects. And Arthur Kroeber unpicks the combative rhetoric emanating from Washington to gauge the probability of heightened trade friction between the United States and China.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    The EM Reflation Trade Is Past Its Best

    The emerging market reflation trade has been on fire. This week Dr. Copper broke out of his six-year downward trend, adding fuel to the reflationary flames. As a result, while the relative performance of cyclical stocks has moderated in developed markets during February, EM cyclicals have continued their bullish run. Their strong performance has helped to lift the MSCI EM index by 10% year-to-date in US dollar terms to reach a 19-month high. But...

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Mapping China’s Asian Dream

    China’s effort to build a regional sphere of influence is upending Asian geopolitics and through huge infrastructure building, quite literally changing the geography. As such, China’s pursuit of empire is an epochal undertaken which investors need to properly factor into their macro understanding of the region. This is why Gavekal’s Tom Miller wrote a book on the topic and as Louis explains in this piece, it is a tome he really wanted to write...

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Containing Capital Outflows

    China’s balance of payments show that 2016 was another big year for capital outflows, which accelerated in the second half. But Chen Long argues this pickup will not continue into 2017. Current outflows are not large enough to stop the central bank from pursuing its exchange-rate policy, which can be sustained for another couple of years.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Brace For US-China Trade Conflict

    Is Donald Trump backing down from his threat to get tough on China trade? It might seem so: after three weeks of rapid policy moves, his promised anti-China trade action is still missing. But it will not stay missing for long. Some US move against China trade looks inevitable in coming months, though the costs will be high and the benefits unclear.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Downside Of Dividends

    Dividends were long an afterthought for Chinese listed companies—but no more: most large firms now pay out more than 30% of their earnings to shareholders. Yet this change has been wrought by heavy-handed regulation, rather than improving governance. The resulting system distorts the signals to investors and the incentives of company managers.

    3
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Is It Finally Time For The Property Tax?

    After more than a decade of debate, could China finally be ready to start imposing a property tax? In this piece, Rosealea argues that political will and technical preparations point to progress toward a tax in 2017. While some fear the impact on prices, the gradual rollout of a narrowly focused tax should be mostly a non-event for markets.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Lost Promise Of Urbanization

    China’s government has been ramping up its focus on urbanization and rural land issues, promoting new policies as breakthroughs that will keep driving growth for decades to come. But for all the rhetoric, the new policies are not fundamentally liberalizing. And the incentives they create could slow rather than accelerate rural-urban migration.

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    Gavekal Research

    Drawing Meaning From 2016, And A Roadmap For 2017

    Having experienced a rough 2016, the temptation for most investors is to clean the slate and start again. Unfortunately, life in financial markets does not allow for such neat endings. In one of his biggest reports in years, Louis argues that after such a complex and tumultuous year, it is essential for investors to draw a breath and derive some understanding of what just happened. Only then should they try to sketch out future scenarios.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Investment Backlash Begins

    Xi Jinping’s passionate defense of the globalized economy at Davos last week was, in reality, a sign that Beijing knows the tide is turning against it. The surge of Chinese outward direct investment in recent years has already sparked a backlash, and the political momentum for more restrictions on Chinese investment now looks unstoppable.

    3
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    Gavekal Research

    Is China Ready For A Trade Shock From Trump?

    China reported an acceleration in its economic growth on Friday, just hours before Donald Trump was sworn in as US president. But growth could take a hit if Trump makes radical changes to tax and trade policy. And while China has plenty of weapons to fight a trade war, those measures are unlikely to completely offset a sudden shock to its exports.

    3
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Dodging A Bullet In The Interbank Market

    In late December, China’s interbank market experienced its greatest turbulence since 2013. Though it was resolved quickly, the mini-crisis still offers some important lessons. Beijing’s technocrats did show good crisis management skills—but it’s also clear that weak links in the domestic financial system will continue to test those skills.

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    Audio & Transcript — Gavekal Research January Call

    Charles Gave argued that Donald Trump’s protectionist policy could lead to a breakdown of the post-1971 fiat money system that is based on a US dollar standard. Will Denyer deconstructed the likely workings of a new trade taxation regime in the US and explained what that means for currencies. Arthur Kroeber outlined the likely Chinese response to a US trade broadside and argued that Beijing was decently well placed to weather the attack.

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    Gavekal Research

    Video: A Coming US-China Trade War?

    In this video interview Arthur explains how a US-China trade war may play out and the implication for capital outflows from China

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    Gavekal Research

    Trump's China Choice: Trade War Or New Deal?

    Once Donald Trump occupies the White House he is sure to launch salvos at China in the form of new tariffs, anti-dumping actions and the labeling of China as a currency manipulator. It is tough to predict exactly what these actions will entail going forward. What is certain is that the long-running US consensus on how to handle China has broken down.

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    Video: The Dissonance In US-China Relations

    Once Donald Trump occupies the White House he is sure to take aim at China in the form of new tariffs, anti-dumping actions and the labeling of the country as a currency manipulator. What is unclear is whether such actions reflect a tough negotiating stance, or instead a fundamental shift in the strategic equation. In this video interview, Arthur explains why the mixed messages coming out of Washington have the potential to spark a dangerous...

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    After Reflation, Profits Still Decent

    The stimulus-driven rebound in housing sales and commodity prices lifted the profits of China’s industrial firms in 2016. With the cycle turning, profit growth is certain to weaken in 2017. But for most manufacturers—outside the volatile commodity complex—the end of reflation should see only a gradual slowdown and still decent profit growth.

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    Gavekal Research

    Emerging Markets Trumped

    In yesterday’s Daily, Louis argued that despite the renewed strengthening of the US dollar over the last couple of months since the US election, there has been no generalized flight out of emerging markets. Sure, Turkey appears to be experiencing a classic emerging market currency crisis. But as Louis noted, the collapse of the lira has been driven by peculiarly Turkish factors. There is little or no risk of contagion spreading to the broader...

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Half-Hearted Battle Against Air Pollution

    The return of severe smog to northern China since December has frightened families and raised more doubts about the government’s declared “war” on air pollution. So is the government losing the war? Or are they not even fighting it in the first place? In this piece, Rosealea explains the political and economic realities of air pollution in China.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    What You Need To Know About The Party Congress

    In 2017, the Communist Party will hold its 19th Congress, an event that will set the political framework for Xi Jinping’s second term as China’s leader, and beyond. The big question for the Congress is how much Xi will be able to change the rules of elite politics to strengthen his own power. This piece offers a guide to those rules of the game.

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    Gavekal Research

    The Gavekal Monthly: Our Top 12 Questions For 2017

    For our first Monthly of the year, we depart from our normal format to offer our thoughts on the dozen most important questions investors must face this year. Not surprisingly, the issues that rose to the top were the impact of the new Trump administration's policies on the dollar and US bond yields, and whether the eurozone will spend the year tearing itself apart. Also,oil prices, the risk of financial implosion in China, and where to...

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    The RMB: Steady As She Goes

    In the first three trading days of 2017, the renminbi jumped more than 1% against the US dollar. But this bullish start to the year does not signal a change of tack for China's policymakers. Here, Chen Long explains why Beijing’s strategy of managing the renminbi against a trade-weighted basket of currencies will not change in 2017.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Five Macro Questions For 2017

    For our first China research piece of the new year, we offer a guide to the economic outlook in the form of short answers to some big questions: Will China be as boring as consensus forecast imply? Will the central bank hike interest rates? Will the housing market correct sharply? Will it be a good year for Chinese equities? Will the labor market hold up?

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Macro Update: Reflation Continues Into 2017

    In our latest quarterly chartbook, Chen Long assesses the outlook for China next year. Growth driven by industrial reflation should continue into early 2017, as private investment and consumption both improve. With inflation up and growth stable, monetary policy is tighter on the margin, which will likely lead to a downturn in housing sales.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Our 2016 Holiday Reading List

    “All books are divisible into two classes,” said John Ruskin, “the books of the hour, and the books of all time.” This year’s list of works enjoyed by Gavekal staff in 2016 includes books from both categories; among them are an account of Russian nationalism, an examination of the sharing economy, and a look at the future of Japan. Happy reading.

    2
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    How Not To Control Coal Prices

    The price of coal has been on a wild ride recently—and the volatility is not over yet. China’s government spent much of 2016 trying to push the coal price up, but the ensuing price surge now has them backpedaling and trying to push prices down again. There is a real risk these interventions will cause prices to overshoot on the downside in 2017.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Putting The Lenin Back In Leninism

    When Xi Jinping took power four years ago, the Communist Party was plagued by opposition and factionalism, a loss of control over provincial governments, and an erosion of legitimacy. To solve these problems Xi has centralized power in a single leader—himself. Such a retrograde approach bodes ill for China’s long-run economic and political future.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Can Stability Maintenance Survive Trump?

    To meet the needs of their own political cycle, Chinese leaders will aim to ensure steady economic growth for the next year. Unfortunately, it seems that the political need of US president-elect Donald Trump is to cause as much disruption for China as possible.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Leninism Upgraded: Xi Jinping’s Authoritarian Innovations

    In order to cement Communist Party control and discipline, Xi Jinping has dismantled China’s successful model of ‘explorative governance’ and latitude for local initiative. China’s long-term success depends on whether he is willing to relax the reins after the 2017 Party Congress.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Grand Bargain Or Grand Conflict With The US?

    For more than two centuries, China-US relations have swung back and forth between high expectations and dashed hopes. Today the stakes are higher than ever, as Beijing seeks to carve out a sphere of influence and Washington struggles to craft a response. And where the relationship is headed under a volatile President Trump is anyone’s guess.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Steady As She Goes (Despite Trump)

    China is still on track to maintain GDP growth of 6% or more in the run-up to the 19th Party Congress in late 2017. Despite threats of a trade war with the US, Trump’s election probably hands China some long-run strategic benefits

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Only One Winner In The Global Robot War

    The US and Europe hope that the rise of robotics will bring manufacturing back to advanced economies. But China is well equipped to make the most of the robot revolution, leaving little space for other players.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Boom And Bust In The Electric Vehicle Market

    China has poured immense resources into creating a market for electric vehicles. But it is struggling to create a self-sustaining industry. As with the failed industrial policy for conventional autos in the 1990s, too much intervention might be the problem.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Nearing The End Of The Last Housing Boom?

    In 2016, China had its strongest housing market upturn since the global financial crisis. Driven by policy and debt, this surge is unlikely to continue through next year. Fundamental demand has peaked and the government wants to keep prices in check.

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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Enigma Of Chinese Power

    Arthur reviews four books that explain why the Communist Party has been so successful, what could bring it down, and Xi Jinping’s strategy for keeping it alive.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    CEQ: Xi Jinping’s China

    2017 will be a very political year for China. The short-term priority is a smooth economic run-up to the Communist Party Congress, when Xi Jinping will strengthen his grip on power. In the long term, questions are growing as to whether the Party is flexible enough to govern a dynamic society. This issue of CEQ assesses China’s political future.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Rise Of A New Conglomerate

    If China’s sputtering state enterprise reforms are going to be successful anywhere, it should be in Shandong, with its solid economy and reform-minded governor. But a closer look at Yankuang Group, the province’s poster child for SOE reform, shows that local SOEs are just becoming even larger, more complicated and less transparent conglomerates.

    1
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    Gavekal Research

    Assessing EMs Vulnerability To The Trump Trade

    Emerging markets have faced selling pressure since Donald Trump’s US presidential election win started to drive treasury yields higher. EM debt funds saw their largest ever outflow the week after the election, while currencies have fallen on fears of trade protectionism and more talk of the US dollar being primed for a 1980s-style super-spike. Given this basket of worries, Joyce revisits her “emerging market relative balance sheet vulnerability...

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Something's Gotta Give

    Louis Gave held a conference call on December 6 where he discussed the state of global markets as the US gets ready for a Trump presidency. The fundamental challenge for investors is that while equities and the US dollar have rallied strongly and bonds have sold off in a “Trump reflation trade,” it is not clear how long that trade can withstand the reality of Trump’s economic program.

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    Gavekal Research

    The Gavekal Monthly: Preparing For The Trumped-Up Economy

    Markets have been on a startling trajectory since Donald Trump upended investors’ assumptions with his win in the US presidential election. In this issue of the Monthly two Gavekal partners ask whether the macro environment really has fundamentally shifted due to the emerging policy platform of the president-elect.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Making Sense Of The Housing-Commodity Nexus

    Early sales data confirm that China’s property cycle took another step down in November. Yet no one seems to have told the commodity markets: even as property sales have cooled off, prices have heated up, with domestic futures for steel, copper, and coal jumping 20-40% in November. In this piece, Rosealea explains how to read these mixed signals.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Don't Blame The Property Speculators

    Is a love of speculation sapping firms’ appetite for real investment? As Chinese companies slow spending on fixed assets, they are buying more investment properties—sparking concern about a “hollowing out” of the economy. Thomas says the blame is misplaced; property speculation is an effect not a cause of firms slowing capex as the economy cools.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Debt Restructuring Toolbox

    Debt restructuring transactions are finally starting to happen in China, after years of warnings about the dangers of rising corporate debt. Yet there is no sign of a repeat of the huge state-led bailouts of the late 1990s. There will be many smaller deals to help individual firms cut debt, but these won’t add up to an overall deleveraging.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Chinese Consumer: Outlook & Trends 2016

    In our latest annual review of the Chinese consumer, Ernan covers the most important cyclical and structural trends. This chartbook summarizes the macro drivers of household income, saving and spending; explains what’s booming and what’s not within various consumer markets; and unpacks the fundamentals of the internet economy.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    A Permanent Surplus Of Power

    China’s excess supply of coal-fired electricity is now more extreme than ever—and is only getting worse. This huge misallocation of resources was caused by policies that tried to restrain demand for power, but ended up encouraging its supply. As a result, electricity rates are falling, but not quickly or substantially enough to fix the problem.

    2
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    Gavekal Research

    Hong Kong Seminar — November 2016

    Arthur Kroeber presented his thoughts on the outcome of the US election, as well as an analysis of China's leadership politics. Will Denyer presented his thoughts on the US economy. Tom Miller gave an optimistic take on reforms in India under Modi's government.

    0
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    Gavekal Research

    Arthur Kroeber: A New Era Of Sino-US Relations

    While Donald Trump has threatened to slap huge tariffs on Chinese exports, Arthur thinks this would be an act of self-harm given the economic co-dependence between China and the US. In this video interview, he maps out the likely evolution of relations between the two countries in the years ahead.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    Behind The Curtain At "Double Eleven"

    Alibaba has grabbed headlines once again by racking up RMB120.7bn in online purchases during its one-day promotional event on November 11. But these enormous numbers are achieved through elaborate promotional schemes that distort consumer behavior, and no longer provide any real information about the China consumer story.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Risk Avoidance Strategy

    China’s economy has turned in another slate of decent growth data for October. The three drivers of loose credit, recovering construction, and rising commodity prices that have supported the economy are still holding firm. But Andrew cautions that the government’s objective is not exactly growth at all costs, but rather avoiding downside risks.

    0
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    Gavekal Dragonomics

    The Advantage Shifts To China

    Donald Trump’s victory was also a victory for Xi Jinping. Trump’s more isolationist stance and transactional attitude hands the edge to China in the battle for influence in Asia. Trump’s threats of economic warfare with China are also mostly empty; if anything, Beijing has gained a bit of advantage in its bilateral ties with the US.

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